Skip to main content

Volume 3 Supplement 2

30th Annual Meeting and Associated Programs of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2015)

Molecular impact of graphene oxide with different shape dimension on human immune cells

In the last few years, there has been enormous interest in graphene oxide (GO) for its wide variety of applications[1]. However, for any medical application, the immune system-impact of GO still remain to be fully understood. Moreover, the modulation of immune cells mediated by nanomaterials could be interesting also in immunotheraphy applications[2]. Indeed, nanomaterials and more in general nanotechnology can enhance the efficacy of immunostimulatory small molecules and biologics by altering their co-localization, biodistribution, and release kinetics[3].

Following these aims we focused on the molecular effects of two GOs, different for lateral size dimensions, on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). GOs were fully characterized then, we performed a wide range of standard assays looking at cell viability, cell activation and multiple cytokines secretion. We characterized the molecular impact of GOs on 84 genes immune-response-related. Additionally, a whole genome analysis was conducted on T cells and monocytes as representative of the innate and adaptive immune responses. In Figure 1 TEM and AFM characterization of GO-Small (140 nm) and GO-Large (4mm). We did not detect any toxicity in GO PBMCs treated samples. The 84 gene expression analysis evidenced a clear dimension-dependent impact of GOs on cell activation (Figure 2). In particular, the GO-Small modulated 16 genes (Fold Regulation >4) compared to only 5 of GO-Large (in red in Figure 2 C). Action confirmed also by cytokine analysis (Figure 2 D). These evidences were also confirmed by microarray analysis on T and monocytes cell lines. GO-Small impact the immune cell activation, underlined by the over expression of many pathways such as leukocyte chemotaxis pathway (Figure 3), genes such as CXCL10 ligand pathway and CXCR3 receptor (Figure 3, red box). Moreover, we found a strong action on cell metabolism with a down-regulation on energetic pathways such as oxidative-phosphorylation pathway in both cell types (data not shown). Our work represents a comprehensive molecular-characterization of different sized GOs on immune cells giving crucial information for the chemical and physical design of graphene for biomedical applications i.e. as a new possible drug delivery systems and nanoimmunotherapy tools.

figure1
figure2
figure3

References

  1. 1.

    Sechi G, Bedognetti D, Sgarrella F, Van Eperen L, Marincola FM, Bianco A, Delogu LG: Nanomed. (Lond). 2014

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Orecchioni M, Bedognetti D, Sgarrella F, Marincola FM, Bianco A, Delogu LG: Journal of translational medicine. 2014

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Goldberg MS: Cell. 2015

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lucia Delogu.

Rights and permissions

Open Access  This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Orecchioni, M., Jasim, D., Pescatori, M. et al. Molecular impact of graphene oxide with different shape dimension on human immune cells. j. immunotherapy cancer 3, P217 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1186/2051-1426-3-S2-P217

Download citation

Keywords

  • Oxide
  • Public Health
  • Immune Cell
  • Small Molecule
  • Graphene Oxide